English Spanish online dictionary Term Bank, translate words and terms with different pronunciation options. crank drive motor motor de accionamiento por. Many translated example sentences containing "biela de motor" – English-Spanish dictionary and search engine for English translations. Metodos de fabricacion para el piston y la biela. Fabricacion del pistón. Biela Unen el piston con el cigüeñal por medio de pasadores (pernos).
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History[ edit ] Scheme of the Hierapolis sawmill in Asia Minora machine that combines a connecting rod with a biela de motor  Evidence for the connecting rod appears in the late 3rd century Hierapolis sawmill in Roman Asia modern Turkey.
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The crank and connecting rod mechanism of these Roman-era watermills converted the rotary motion of the waterwheel into the linear movement of the saw blades. Their output rocked back and forth, rather biela de motor rotating continuously. Crosshead of a stationary steam engine: This requires a seal around the piston rod and so the hinge between the piston and connecting rod is placed outside the cylinder, in a large sliding bearing block called a crosshead.
The connecting rods also called the main rods in US practicerun between the crank pins and crossheadswhere they connect biela de motor the piston rods.
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The similar rods between driving wheels are called side rods in US practice and coupling rods in British practice. The connecting rods of smaller steam locomotives are usually of rectangular cross-section  but, on small locomotives, marine-type rods of circular cross-section have occasionally been used.
Stephen Lewinwho built both locomotive and marine engines, was a frequent user of round rods. Gresley 's A4 Pacificssuch as Mallardhad an alloy steel connecting rod in the form of an I-beam with a web that was only 0.
On Western Rivers steamboatsthe connecting rods are properly called pitmans, and are sometimes incorrectly referred to as pitman arms. Internal combustion engines[ edit ] Three different connecting rods, of which the left and the aluminum center, the connecting rod to the right for endothermic engine in steel, the left connecting rod for endothermic engine has the modular head and the foot equipped with a bushing, the central rod has the oil drip rod equipped with pats In modern automotive internal combustion enginesthe connecting rods are most usually made of steel for production engines, but can be made of T6- and T aluminum alloys  for lightness and the ability to absorb high impact at the expense of durability or titanium for a combination biela de motor lightness with strength, at higher cost for high-performance engines, or of cast iron for applications such as motor scooters.
They are not rigidly fixed at either end, so that the angle between the biela de motor rod and the piston can change as the rod moves up and down and rotates around the crankshaft.
Connecting rods, especially in racing engines, may be called "billet" rods, if they are machined out of a solid billet of metal, rather than being cast or forged.
Biela de motor
Small end and big end[ edit ] The small end attaches to the piston pin, gudgeon pin or wrist pinwhich is currently most often press fit into the connecting rod but can swivel in the piston, a "floating wrist pin" design. The big end connects to the crankpin bearing journal on the crank throwin most engines running on replaceable bearing shells accessible via the connecting rod bolts which hold the bearing "cap" onto the big end.
Typically there is a pinhole bored through the bearing on the big end of the connecting rod biela de motor that pressurized lubricating motor oil squirts out onto the thrust side of the cylinder wall to lubricate the travel of the pistons and piston rings.
Most small two-stroke engines and some single cylinder four-stroke engines avoid the need for a pumped lubrication system by using a rolling-element bearing instead, however this requires the crankshaft to be pressed apart and then back together in order to replace a connecting rod.
Engine wear and rod length[ edit ] A major source of engine wear is the sideways force exerted on the piston through the connecting rod by the crankshaftwhich typically wears the cylinder into an oval cross-section rather than circular, making it impossible for piston rings to correctly seal against the cylinder walls.
Geometrically, it can be seen that longer connecting rods will reduce the amount of this sideways force, and therefore lead to longer engine life. However, for a given engine block, the sum of the length of the connecting rod plus the piston stroke is a fixed number, determined by the biela de motor distance between the crankshaft axis and the top of the cylinder block where the cylinder head fastens.
Stress and failure[ edit ] Failure of a connecting rod is one of the most common causes of catastrophic engine failure. Aluminum connecting rod for 4-stroke engine, fatigue breakage and subsequent impact with the crankshaft The connecting rod is under tremendous stress from the reciprocating load represented by the piston, actually stretching and being compressed with every rotation, and the load increases as the square of the engine speed increase.
Failure of a connecting biela de motor, usually called throwing a rod, is one of the most common causes of catastrophic engine failure in cars, frequently putting the broken rod through the side of the crankcase and thereby rendering the engine irreparable; it can result from fatigue near a physical defect in the rod, lubrication failure in a bearing due to faulty maintenance, or from failure of the rod bolts from a defect, improper tightening or over-revving of the engine.
Despite their frequent occurrence on televised competitive automobile events, such failures are quite rare on production cars during normal daily driving.
Biela - Wikipedia, a enciclopedia libre
This is because production auto parts have a much larger factor of safetyand often more systematic quality control. In addition, great care is taken to torque the biela de motor rod bolts to the exact value specified; often these bolts must be replaced rather than reused.
The big end of the rod is fabricated as a unit and cut or biela de motor in two to establish precision fit around the big end bearing shell. Therefore, the big end "caps" are not interchangeable between connecting rods, and when rebuilding an engine, care must be taken to ensure that the caps of the different connecting rods are not mixed up.
Both the connecting rod and its bearing cap are usually embossed with the corresponding position number in the engine block. Powder biela de motor edit ] Engines such as the Ford 4.
The cap is then separated from the rod by biela de motor fracturing process, which results in an uneven mating surface due to the grain of biela de motor powdered metal. This ensures that upon reassembly, the cap will be perfectly positioned with respect to the rod, compared to the minor misalignments which can occur if the mating surfaces are both flat.
Compound rods[ edit ] Articulated connecting rods Multi-bank engines with many cylinders, such as a V12 layout, have little space available for many connecting rod journals on a limited length of crankshaft. This is a difficult compromise to solve and its consequence has often led to engines being regarded as failures Sunbeam ArabRolls-Royce Vulture.