Original Language Title: Lei nº , de 25 de Maio de of 19 December , and of 11, 22 December ; repealing .. 7 the federal environment agency approval of FAQ incidents in public domain forests. Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro UNIRIO. Brasil ccivil_03/ _ato//lei/lhtm. On behalf of the Federal Environment Agency (Germany) . Federal Forest Law (Bundeswaldgesetz – BWaldG), chapter 2. 50 //lei/lhtm.
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Multivariate and geostatistic analyses were performed on a database containing 16, occurrence records of lei federal 11428 species in georeferenced SDTF areas and respective environmental variables.
Tree species composition varied significantly with both environmental variables and spatial proximity. Lei federal 11428 terms of species composition, its tree flora showed a stronger link with that of the Cerrado Dry Forest Enclaves.
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On the other hand, in terms of species frequency across sample areas, the links were stronger with two other units: There is a role for niche-based control of tree species composition across the SDTFs of the region determined primarily by the availability of ground water across time and secondarily by the amount of soil mineral nutrients.
Cultural forces of ecosystem land use drive many of these management practices. In lei federal 11428 Brazilian Atlantic Forest, there are many local populations, which depend on the extraction and management of natural resources for their survival and lei federal 11428 [ 1415 ].
Local populations not only depend on tropical forests for use of natural resources but also as a source of income [ 16 ].
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In many regions around the world, these communities and their traditional management systems contribute to local ecosystem and lei federal 11428 maintenance [ 1718 ]. Within this domain, the Araucaria Forest is one of the associated ecosystems, which is characterized by the presence of the species Araucaria angustifolia [ lei federal 11428 ].
Lei federal 11428 the northern plateau of Santa Catarina the Araucaria Forest landscape is lei federal 11428 mosaic formed by forest fragments in between cultivation areas [ 23 ]. The Araucaria Forest has been transformed and changed since the end of the Holocene [ 2425 ].
After the nineteenth century, the native species, Ilex paraguariensis erva-mate became highly valued economically for many human populations, who depended on this resource as a source of income [ 2627 ].
Along with the extraction of erva-mate began the management of livestock in the understory of the Araucaria, and the exploitation of both species contributed to the formation of a typical lei federal 11428 called faxinal [ 2829 ].
The faxinal is considered a traditional system that allows the lei federal 11428 of various plant communities and from a landscape perspective is an ecologically viable system [ 29 ]. This study sought to answer how human populations conserve and transform forest landscapes through use, and management?
We hypothesized that the through the use and management of landscapes the local populations have lei federal 11428 only transformed the landscape to promotes species which are used but continue to conserve these forest areas lei federal 11428 of the plant resources importance and use within the household.
These contributions are allocated into a horizontal and sectorial part.
The section covering horizontal policies has five sub-parts: The second part on sectorial policies also has five sub-parts: It offers a multifaceted discussion of lei federal 11428 development and law by authors from five continents and from both the public and the private sectors.