The association of Lp(a) with incident atrial fibrillation (AF) and with ischemic stroke among individuals with AF remains to be elucidated. Background: Lp(a) is pro-atherosclerotic and pro-thrombotic, causal of coronary disease, and associated with other cardiovascular diseases. Lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) has drawn increasing attention as a valuable indicator of risk for cardiovascular disease. It is both proatherosclerotic and.


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Nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers eg, verapamil, diltiazem are also effective.

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Digoxin is the least effective but may be preferred lp atrial fibrillation heart failure is present. These drugs may be used orally for long-term rate control.

When beta-blockers, nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, and digoxin—separately or in combination—are ineffective, amiodarone may be required. Rhythm control In patients with heart failure or other hemodynamic compromise directly attributable to new-onset atrial fibrillation, restoration of normal sinus rhythm is indicated to improve cardiac output.

In other cases, conversion of AF to normal sinus rhythm is optimal, but the antiarrhythmic drugs that are capable of doing so class Ia, Ic, III have a risk of adverse effects and may increase mortality. Conversion to sinus lp atrial fibrillation does not eliminate the need for chronic anticoagulation.


For acute conversion, synchronized cardioversion or drugs can be used. Anticoagulation should be continued for at least 4 wk after cardioversion.


Many patients need chronic anticoagulation see Long-term measures to prevent thromboembolism. Conversion to sinus rhythm does not eliminate the need for chronic anticoagulation in patients who meet criteria for it.

Efficacy and maintenance of sinus rhythm after the procedure is improved with use of class Ia, Ic, or III antiarrhythmic drugs 24 to 48 h before the procedure. Drugs for conversion of atrial fibrillation to lp atrial fibrillation rhythm include class Ia procainamide, quinidine, disopyramideIc flecainide, propafenoneand III amiodarone, dofetilide, dronedarone, ibutilide, sotalol antiarrhythmics lp atrial fibrillation Table: These drugs should not be used until rate has been controlled by a beta-blocker or nondihydropyridine calcium channel blocker.

These converting drugs are also used for long-term maintenance of sinus rhythm with or without previous cardioversion. Choice depends on patient tolerance.

Cleveland Clinic Center for Atrial Fibrillation

However, for paroxysmal AF that occurs only or almost only at rest lp atrial fibrillation during sleep when vagal tone is high, drugs with vagolytic effects eg, disopyramide may be particularly effective. Exercise-induced AF may be better prevented with a beta-blocker.

This approach must be limited to patients who have no sinoatrial or AV node dysfunction, bundle branch block, QT prolongation, Brugada syndrome, or structural heart disease. This potential complication can be reduced in frequency by coadministration of an AV nodal suppressing drug eg, lp atrial fibrillation beta-blocker or a nondihydropyridine calcium antagonist.


ACE inhibitors, angiotensin Lp atrial fibrillation receptor blockers, and aldosterone blockers may attenuate the myocardial fibrosis that provides a substrate for AF in lp atrial fibrillation with heart failure, but the role of these drugs in routine AF treatment has yet to be defined.

If the onset of the current episode of AF is not clearly within 48 h, the patient should be anticoagulated for 3 wk before and at least 4 wk after cardioversion regardless of the patient's predicted risk of a thromboembolic event class I recommendation.

The association of Lp a with incident atrial fibrillation AF and with ischemic stroke among individuals with AF remains to be elucidated. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox models to compare AF and ischemic stroke risk across Lp a levels. First, we evaluated incident AF in participants free of AF at baseline.

Atrial Fibrillation (AF) - Cardiovascular Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition

AF was ascertained by electrocardiography at study visits, hospital International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision ICD-9 codes, and death certificates.

Stroke was identified by annual phone calls, hospital ICD-9 Revision codes, and death certificates. The baseline age lp atrial fibrillation Median Lp a levels were Median follow-up was