Minimal change disease (MCD) is a major cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS), characterized by intense proteinuria leading to edema. Minimal change disease is a kidney disease in which there is damage to the filtering units of the kidney (glomeruli). It is the most common cause of nephrotic. Minimal change disease is a disease affecting the kidneys which causes a nephrotic syndrome. Nephrotic syndrome leads to the loss of significant amounts of  ‎Signs and symptoms · ‎Pathophysiology · ‎Treatment · ‎Epidemiology.


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Minimal Change Disease

Onofrio 4, Rome, Italy. Abstract Minimal change disease MCD is a major cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome NS minimal change nephropathy, characterized by intense proteinuria leading to edema and intravascular volume depletion.

In the pediatric setting, a renal biopsy is minimal change nephropathy not performed if presentation is typical and the patient responds to therapy with oral prednisone at conventional doses.

The pathologic hallmark of disease is absence of visible alterations by light microscopy and effacement of foot processes by electron microscopy.

Minimal change disease - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice

Although the cause is unknown and it is likely that different subgroups of disease recognize a different pathogenesis, immunologic dysregulation and modifications of the podocyte are thought to synergize in altering the integrity of the glomerular basement minimal change nephropathy and therefore determining proteinuria.

The mainstay of therapy is prednisone, but steroid-sensitive forms frequently relapse and this leads to a minimal change nephropathy of patients requiring second-line steroid-sparing immunosuppression. Many children with MCD experience 3 to 4 relapses before the disease starts to resolve.

Some children require longer term therapy to keep MCD under control. It appears that the more time without a relapse, the better the chances are that a relapse will not occur.

In most children with minimal change disease, particularly among those who respond typically, there is minimal to no permanent damage observed in their kidneys.


With corticosteroid treatment, most cases of nephrotic syndrome from minimal change disease in children will go into remission. This typically occurs faster, over 2 to 8 weeks, in younger children, but can take up to 3 or 4 months in adults.

Typically, the dose of corticosteroids will initially be fairly minimal change nephropathy, lasting 1or 2 months.


minimal change nephropathy When urine protein levels have normalised, corticosteroids are gradually withdrawn over several weeks to avoid triggering an Addisonian crisis. Giving corticosteroids initially for a longer period of time is thought to reduce the likelihood of relapse.

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The majority of children with minimal change disease will respond to this treatment. Even among those who respond well to corticosteroids initially, it is common to observe periods of relapse return of nephrotic syndrome symptoms.

Minimal change disease - Wikipedia

Because of the potential for relapse, the physician may prescribe and teach the patient how to use a tool to have them check urine protein levels at home. Two out of 3 children who initially responded to steroids will experience this relapse at least once.

Typically, the steroids will be restarted when this occurs, although minimal change nephropathy total duration of minimal change nephropathy treatment is usually shorter during relapses than it is during the initial onset of the disease.

There are several immunosuppressive medications that can be added to steroids when their effect is insufficient, or can replace them if intolerance or specific contraindications are encountered.

Epidemiology[ edit ] Minimal change disease is most common in very young children but can occur in older children and adults. Among children less than 10 years of age, boys seem to be more likely to develop minimal change disease than girls.

Minimal change nephropathy change disease is being seen with increasing frequency in adults over the age of People with one or more autoimmune disorders are at increased risk minimal change nephropathy developing minimal change disease.