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In Elites in Latin America, ed.

Aníbal Quijano

Oxford University Presspp. A Cura de Giancarlo Santarelli. Urbanisation, Changement Social et Dependance.

Urbanization of Society in Latin America. Urbanization in Latin America. La Formation du Monde de la Marginalite Urbaine. Espaces et Societes, No.

Project MUSE - Coloniality of Power, Eurocentrism, and Latin America

Perhaps it originated in reference to the phenotypic differences between conquerors and conquered. Social quijano anibal founded on the category of race produced new historical social identities in America—Indians, blacks, and mestizos—and redefined others.

Terms such as Spanish and Portuguese, and much later European, which until then indicated only geographic origin or country of origin, acquired from then on a racial connotation in reference to the new quijano anibal.

Insofar as the social relations that were being configured were relations of domination, such identities were considered constitutive of the hierarchies, places, and corresponding social roles, and consequently of the model of colonial domination that was being imposed.

In other words, quijano anibal and racial identity were established as instruments of basic social classification. As time went by, the colonizers codified the phenotypic trait of the colonized as quijano anibal, and they assumed it as the emblematic characteristic of racial category.


Following is a brief understanding of his theory of capitalism and modernity. In the historical process of the constitution of America, all forms of control and exploitation of labor and production, as well as the control of quijano anibal and distribution of products, revolved around the capital-salary relation and the world market.

These forms of labor control quijano anibal slavery, serfdom, petty-commodity production, reciprocity, and wages.

Aníbal Quijano - Wikipedia

In such an assemblage, each form of labor control was no mere extension of its historical antecedents. It is a new identity formation since these categories of production process were formed to organise and control the production.

Additionally, it is said that different forms of labour control like slavery, serfdom, petty- commodity production, reciprocity, and wages existed not only in the same time and space but also integrated to capital and global market. Different forms of labour were thus brought under one rubric of a single centralised capitalist structure based in Europe.

Quijano anibal was seen in the form of Whites being the wage earners and the colonised population being excluded from wage earning and quijano anibal categorised as non-paid or non-wage labourers. Racial inferiority perceived by the colonisers was the main reason of the segregation of the labourers as wage and non-wage earners at times as lower wage earners.

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It is pertinent to recall that capitalistic production process was organised on racial lines as indicated in the earlier section.

In Europe, the social geography of capital was specific and concentrated. Since it was concentrated and organised in a more quijano anibal manner compared to the colonies in terms of wages, resources, products etc.

The key to this concentration of capital and emergence of Europe is the colonality of power that structured labour and capital quijano anibal specific forms in different geographies.