REGIMENES POLITICOS TOTALITARIOS EN EUROPA y Se consolidaron regimenes politicos alternativos a las democracias. Transcript of totalitarismo y guerra civil española. MAURICIO GUTIERREZ JIMENEZ TOTALITARISMOS EUROPEOS DEL SIGLO XX. Una novela política, aunque Bartol (como tantos otros) eligiera para criticar los nacientes totalitarismos europeos —uno puede perder.


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The ability of the body and clothing to totalitarismos europeos, to conceal or to express the intentions of a political actor was by no means a discovery of interwar totalitarianisms.

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More recently, other authors have approached the symbolic uses of body and clothing in modern times. The sans-culottes without breeches of the French Revolution show the extent to totalitarismos europeos the presence or — as in this case totalitarismos europeos the absence of a piece of garment can define a social status that, in turn, is identified with a specific political position.

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To wear trousers instead of culottes, like the middle and upper classes at the time, was not a choice, but a consequence of the poverty of the popular classes, excluded from the use of this sign of distinction represented by the breeches. As a result, sans-culottism became a revolutionary totalitarismos europeos invoked by the defenders of a totalitarismos europeos interpretation of the founding principles of liberty, equality and fraternity — especially, equality.

The defeat of Jacobinism and accordingly of the sans-culottes in triggered a new socio-political fashion in revolutionary France embodied by the Muscadins or Incroyables Gendron ; Waquet These were snobbish young members of the upper classes that, besides wearing musk perfume — hence their name —, sported fancy clothes, somewhat provocative, as if imitating the striking style of the sans-culottes — a marked fondness for garish colours and stripes.

Associated with counter-revolutionary violence under Thermidor and the Directory, their formal radicalism, as an inverted version of the Jacobin fashion, conveyed the new sign of the times: However, sinsombrerismo hatlessism was also adopted by totalitarismos europeos young male Spanish intellectuals at the time, as observed by Jorge Luis Borges during a stay in Spain.

The key was, firstly, the refusal to wear a special piece of garment — in the case of these movements, the importance of not wearing a jacket, but just a shirt, even outdoors — and, secondly, the use of the streets as the arena where these movements manifested their power and tried to intimidate rivals with an aggressive political practice and symbolic language aimed at expelling adversaries from the public space.

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Totalitarianisms that emerged at the time understood perfectly the enormous potential of these uniformed movements for the conquest or conservation of power and for training the masses, or their youthful and radical avant-gardes, in their regimented conception of life.

This is why the history of the shirt movements is also that of totalitarianism in its golden age. They were a walking total State, a community in motion, displayed in the typical totalitarismos europeos and parades of the totalitarismos europeos and above all the s.


To wear the right shirt with the right colour afforded the comfortable sensation totalitarismos europeos belonging to and being protected by a chosen people, nation, race or social class.

It lacked, however, a general and empirical approach to the shirt movements of the interwar period, capable of revealing the commonalities and differences totalitarismos europeos these, the historical causes of their appearance and the main tendencies of this totalitarian fashion.


The main basis of my approach is an inventory totalitarismos europeos on the 34 shirt movements that I have totalitarismos europeos to identify in interwar Europe with their essential features, namely, the colour of their shirts, the ideology and the year of their foundation Table 1 in section 2.

This information will significantly increase our knowledge of their historical links with totalitarianism and their crucial role in totalitarismos europeos struggle for power.

The inertia of World War I, represented by the Freikorps, the Italian arditi and other groups of veterans, the triumph of Bolshevism in Russia and the egalitarian logic of these movements lent military paraphernalia a particular value.

The principles and commitments acquired in the trenches determined the political tendency in post-War Europe, also the way of dressing.

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By DecemberBenito Mussolini had already coined the term trincerocrazia trencherocracyas if sensing the importance that those special links established in the Great War trenches would have in the building of a new conception of power. It was not even necessary to wear the whole kit: Comradeship — this precious sentiment in a time of extreme crisis — was born of a shared experience of frustration and struggle, but also of living inside a closed community that recognised itself in its symbols and uniforms.

To wear the same shirt, without the usual jacket of the regular soldiers, conveyed totalitarismos europeos egalitarian and fraternal spirit of this kind of armed corps. They were more than a guerrilla, but less than a regular army in terms of discipline and military equipment.

The comparison with the mesocratic militias of the nineteenth century is significant, because the latter tended to wear pompous uniforms so as to convey social respectability, totalitarismos europeos the paramilitary groups of the interwar period preferred sober, even plebeian, uniform, consistent with the spirit of the times.

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The main links between their members were comradeship, mutual allegiance and a totalitarismos europeos of hierarchy based more on the charisma of the leaders than on formal ranks. Not wearing a jacket over the shirt — this aspect is absolutely crucial — revealed the determination of men ready for action and prepared for everything.

It seems that the red shirts headed by Garibaldi in the struggle for Italian unity shaped the model followed by Mussolini and his blackshirts. totalitarismos europeos

It was founded in the s by Major C. Douglas and John Gordon Hargrave, a rather conservative utopian and versatile artist from the ranks of the Boy Scouts who in the mids totalitarismos europeos the potential of credit to solve the social problems of capitalism without the trauma of a revolution.

Their project attained particular popularity during the unemployment crisis triggered in Britain by the Great Depression.

This equidistant position between extremes was infrequent, nevertheless, among the shirt movements, usually much closer to the far-right. The Boy Scouts model that inspired Hargrave were totalitarismos europeos to exert, thereafter, a certain influence upon other more radical organizations also characterised by the importance of the shirt as the main element of their uniform.