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World Englishes

History of the English language English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought by Germanic invaders into Britain. Initially, Old World english 3 was a diverse group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England.


Eventually, one of these dialects, Late West Saxoncame to dominate. For two centuries after the Norman Conquest, French became the language of everyday world english 3 among the upper classes in England.

World English 3 with Student CD-ROM : Martin Milner :

Although the language of the masses remained English, the bilingual character of England in this period was thus formed. This period of conflicting interests and feelings of resentment was later termed the Hundred World english 3 War.


By the beginning of the 14th century, English had regained universal use and become the principal tongue of all England, but not without having undergone world english 3 change. The language was advocated as acceptable for learned and literary use.

With the Great Vowel Shiftthe language in this period matured to a standard and differed significantly from the Middle English period, becoming recognizably " modern ". This desire for system and regularity in the language contrasted with the individualism and spirit of independence characterized by the previous age.

The rising importance of some of England's larger colonies and former colonies, such as the rapidly developing United States, enhanced the value of the English varieties spoken in these regions, encouraging the belief, among the local populations, that their distinct varieties of English should be granted equal world english 3 with the standard of Great Britain.

World Englishes - Wikipedia

In contrast to the English of Great Britainthe varieties spoken in modern North America and Caribbean, South Africa, Australia, and World english 3 Zealand have been modified in response to the changed and changing sociolinguistic contexts of the migrants, for example being in contact with indigenous Native AmericanKhoisan and BantuAboriginal or Maori populations in the colonies.

English in West Africa began with trade. English soon gained official status in what are today GambiaSierra LeoneGhanaNigeria and Cameroonand some of the pidgin and creoles which developed from English contact, including Krio Sierra Leone and Cameroon Pidginhave large numbers of speakers now.

As for East Africaextensive British settlements were established in what are now KenyaUgandaTanzania world english 3, MalawiZambia and Zimbabwewhere English world english 3 a crucial language of the government, education and the law.

From the early s, the six countries achieved independence in succession; but English remained the official language and had large numbers of second language speakers in Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi along with Chewa. English was formally introduced to the sub-continent of South Asia India, BangladeshPakistanSri LankaNepal and Bhutan world english 3 the second half of the eighteenth century.

World English 3: Student Book with CD-ROM

In India, English was given status through the implementation of Macaulay 'Minute' ofwhich proposed the introduction of world english 3 English educational system in India.

British influence in South-East Asia and the South Pacific began in the world english 3 eighteenth century, involving primarily the territories now known as SingaporeMalaysia and Hong Kong.

The Americans came late in South-East Asia but their influence spread like wildfire as their reforms on education in the Philippines progressed in their less than half a century colonization of the islands. English has been taught since the American period and is one of the official languages of the Philippines.

world english 3


Ever since English became the official language, a localized variety gradually emerged - Philippine English. Lately, linguist Wilkinson Daniel Wong Gonzales [10] argued that this variety has in world english 3 more varieties, suggesting that we move towards Philippine Englishes [11] paradigm to progress further in Schneider's dynamic model after gathering evidences of such happening.

Most of these Englishes developed as a result of imperial expansion that brought the language to various parts of the world. In this model the diffusion of English is captured in terms of three Concentric Circles of the language: The Inner Circle thus represents the traditional historical and sociolinguistic bases of English in regions where it is now used as a primary language: English is the native language or mother tongue world english 3 most people in these countries.